Vitis vinifera L
Old World, European or Californian grapes
Grape seeds contain 6–20% oil, used for edible purposes, soaps, and as a linseed substitute. The leaves of this and other species are eaten in other cultures.
Grapes are propagated from cuttings, field-budding or graftings to resistant rootstocks, such as 'Rupestris St. George', 'Aramon X Rupestris No. 1', 'Solonis x Othello 16131, 'Dogridgel or 'Salt Creek'. Prepare area to be planted to grapes by plowing to 25 cm and providing organic matter in soil, by turning under a cover crop or green manure. Grapes are set in either fall or spring. If in spring, plant early to give plants long growing season. Fall planting is unwise in northern regions. Damage from heaving may occur with fall-planted vines. Most commercial vineyards are set 3.6 m with 1-year old plants. In California plant spacings range from 1.8 to 2.4 m x 3.6 m, using 1350 to 1025 vines/ha, respectively. Plant vines about same depth as they grew in nursery, and prune them to a single stem with 2 or 3 buds. Trellis or posts with wires are necessary to train vines. Do not set vine too close to a wooden post, as the post will be disturbed when post has to be replaced. Plant 2 plants in space between posts. if concrete or steel posts are used, the grape hoe is easier to use if a vine is set at each post and one in between. Set vines directly under trellis. Vines out of line may be constantly injured by cultivation. Training and pruning vary with different kinds. Pruning, a very important practice, has a direct relationship to larger yields, higher quality and more uniform production. Vineyards are normally cultivated in spring and early summer in order to stimulate growth. Cultivation should be shallow, only 7.5–10 cm deep. If erosion is a problem, cultivate only enough to prevent weeds from becoming a problem. Leave trash and some growth on land and have some pockets to catch water in soil. Growth of vines may be restricted by seeding a fast growing cover crop which will compete for nutrients and moisture. Since grapevines often outlive those who plant them, and will grow and produce indefinitely with good care. Where manure is readily available, 25–75 MT/ha may be incorporated into the soil. If chicken manure is used, since it is richer in quickly available nitrogen, only one-third to one-half is required. Maintaining organic matter in soil may be aided by growing and turning under cover crops, weeds, hay or straw. Minor elements may be needed to prevent chlorosis, as borax, magnesium sulfate or ferrous sulfate. Fertilizer should be used primarily as a supplement to, not a substitute for, good culture and organic matte. Girdling of canes is often used to concentrate carbohydrates in fruit
نوشته شده توسط علی جعفری میدانی در یکشنبه 16 مهر 1391 ساعت ساعت 09 و 21 دقیقه و 17 ثانیه | لینک ثابت نظرات |